Territory and Sustainable Tourism Development: a Space-Time Analysis on European Regions

  • João Romão Centre for Advanced Studies in Management and Economics (CEFAGE - UAlg), University of Algarve http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6024-2624
  • João Guerreiro Research Centre for Spatial and Organizational Dynamics (CIEO), University of Algarve
  • Paulo M. M. Rodrigues Bank of Portugal and Universidade Nova de Lisboa (Portugal)

Abstract

In the long run, tourism competitiveness depends on the sustainable use of territorial assets: the differentiation of destinations depends on the integration of cultural and natural resources into the tourism supply, but also on their preservation over time. The link between competitiveness and sustainability is the staring point for our analysis of the relationships between regional tourism competitiveness, the dynamics of tourism demand and investment and the existence of natural resources and cultural assets in European regions, by using advanced spatial econometric techniques. Despite the close relationship between tourism activities and the characteristics of the territory, the application of methods of spatial analysis methods in tourism studies is still scarce and the results of this work clearly show their potential for this field of research. Among the main findings of this paper, it was observed that natural resources do not have the expected positive impacts on regional tourism competitiveness and that European regions with more abundant natural resources are often developing unsustainable forms of mass tourism, with low value added and scarce benefits for the host communities. The existence of spatial correlation effects suggests that positive spillovers arising from tourism dynamics in neighbourhood regions prevail over potential negative effects related to the competition between destinations. Policy and managerial implications of these results are discussed and further research questions are suggested.

Author Biographies

João Romão, Centre for Advanced Studies in Management and Economics (CEFAGE - UAlg), University of Algarve

Researcher at the Centre for Advanced Studies in Management and Economics (University of Algarve, Portugal) and guest lecturer at the Graduate School of Economics and Business Administration of Hokkaido University (Japan), with research interests and consultancy experience in tourism, urban planning, regional development and spatial econometrics. João holds a PhD in Tourism (University of Algarve) and a MSc. in Economics (University of Lisbon). He is a founding member of the Regional Science Academy (since 2015) and a co-chair of the cluster on Tourism, Leisure and Recreation of NECTAR (since 2016).

João Guerreiro, Research Centre for Spatial and Organizational Dynamics (CIEO), University of Algarve

Full Professor at the Faculty of Economics of the University of Algarve and Scientific Adviser of CRIA (Division of Entrepreneurship and Technology Transfer of University of Algarve). João Guerreiro was the President of the Regional Authority of Algarve (1996-2003), Pro-Rector of the University of Algarve (2004) with the areas of Technology Transfer and Innovation, and Rector of the University of Algarve (2006-2013). He holds a Bachelor degree in Geography and a PhD in Economic Sciences (Rural Economy), with research interest in regional economy, economics of innovation and local development. 

Paulo M. M. Rodrigues, Bank of Portugal and Universidade Nova de Lisboa (Portugal)

Senior Research Economist at the Economics and Research Department of the Bank of Portugal and Professor of Econometrics at Nova School of Business and Economics of Universidade Nova de Lisboa (Lisbon, Portugal). His research interests include time-series econometrics, financial econometrics, empirical finance and macroeconomics, and tourism economics. He is an editorial board member and has published a number of peer-reviewed articles in several internationally renowned scientific journals.

References

Anselin L (2005) Exploring Spatial Data with GeoDaTM: A Workbook. Center for Spatially Integrated Social Science, Santa Barbara

http://la1.rcc.uchicago.edu/media/geoda_files/docs/geodaworkbook.pdf

Anselin L (2010) Thirty years of spatial econometrics. Papers in Regional Science 89: 3-25

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1435-5957.2010.00279.x/full

Anselin L, Lozano-Gracia N (2008) Errors in variables and spatial effects in hedonic house price models of ambient air quality. Empirical Economics 34: 5-34

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00181-007-0152-3

Baltagi S, Jung B, Koh W (2003) Testing Panel Data Regression Models with Spatial Error Correlation. Journal of Econometrics 117: 123–150

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304407603001209

Baltagi S, Jung B, Koh W (2007) Testing for Serial Correlation, Spatial Autocorrelation and Random Effects Using Panel Data. Journal of Econometrics 140(1): 5-51

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304407606002223

Benur A, Bramwell B (2015) Tourism product development and product diversification in destinations. Tourism Management 50: 213-224

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261517715000412

Buhalis D (1999) Limits of tourism development in peripheral destinations: problems and challenges. Tourism Management 20: 183-185

http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/1114/1/fulltext.pdf

Buhalis D (2000) Marketing the competitive destination of the future. Tourism Management 21: 97-116

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261517799000953

Butler R (1999) Sustainable tourism: A state‐of‐the‐art review. Tourism Geographies 1(1): 7-25

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/14616689908721291

Camisón C, Forés B (2015) Is tourism firm competitiveness driven by different internal or external specific factors?: New empirical evidence from Spain. Tourism Management 48: 477-499

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261517715000047

Celant A (2007) Global Tourism and Regional Competitiveness. Patron, Bologna

Cliff A, Ord J (1981) Spatial Processes, Models and Applications. Pion, London

Coccossis H (2002) Tourism Development and Carrying Capacity. In Apostoulos G, Gayle D (eds.) Island Tourism and Sustainable Development (131-143). Praeger, Westport

Cracolici M, Nijkamp P (2008) The attractiveness and competitiveness of tourist destinations: A study of Southern Italian regions. Tourism Management 30: 336–344

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S026151770800112X

Croissant Y, Millo G (2008) Panel data econometrics in R: The plm package. Journal of Statistical Software 27(2): 1-43

http://th.archive.ubuntu.com/cran/web/packages/plm/vignettes/plm.pdf

Cuccia T, Guccio G, Rizzo I (2016) The effects of UNESCO World Heritage List inscription on tourism destinations performance in Italian regions. Economic Modelling 53: 494-508

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0264999315003454

Cucculelli M, Goffi G (2016) Does sustainability enhance tourism destination competitiveness? Evidence from Italian Destinations of Excellence. Journal of Cleaner Production 111: 370-382

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959652614013663

Douglas J (2014) What's political ecology got to do with tourism?. Tourism Geographies 16(1): 8-13

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/14616688.2013.864324

Dwyer L, Kim C (2003) Destination Competitiveness: Determinants and Indicators. Current Issues in Tourism 6(5): 369-414

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13683500308667962

Elhorst J (2003) Specification and Estimation of Spatial Panel Data Models. International Regional Science Review 26: 223-243

http://irx.sagepub.com/content/26/3/244.abstract

Elhorst J. (2014) Spatial Econometrics: From Cross-Sectional Data to Spatial Panels. Springer, New York

http://www.springer.com/us/book/9783642403392

Enright M, Newton J (2004) Tourism destination competitiveness: a quantitative approach. Tourism Management 25: 777–788

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261517704001347

European Commission (2007) Agenda for a Sustainable and Competitive European Tourism. European Commission, Luxembourg

http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=celex:52007DC0621

Florax R, Vlist A (2003) Spatial Econometric Data Analysis: Moving Beyond Traditional Models. International Regional Science Review 26(3): 23-243

http://irx.sagepub.com/content/26/3/223.short

Gilbert D (1984) The need for countries to differentiate their tourist product and how to do so. Seminar papers: Tourism managing for results. University of Surrey, United Kingdom

Hassan S (2000) Determinants of market competitiveness in an environmentally sustainable tourism industry. Journal of Travel Research 38(3), 239–245

http://jtr.sagepub.com/content/38/3/239.full.pdf+html

Hong W (2009) Global competitiveness measurement for the tourism sector. Current Issues in Tourism 12(2): 105-132

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13683500802596359

Huybers T, Bennett J (2003) Environmental Management and the Competitiveness of Nature-Based Tourism Destinations. Environmental and Resource Economics, 24: 213–233

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/A:1022942001100

Kang S, Kim J, Nicholls S (2014) National Tourism Policy and Spatial Patterns of Domestic Tourism in South Korea. Journal of Travel Research 53(6): 791–804

http://jtr.sagepub.com/content/53/6/791.full.pdf+html

Jafari J (2001) The Scientification of Tourism. In Smith V, Brent M (eds) Hosts and Guests Revisited: Tourism Issues of the 21st Century. Cognizant Communication Corporation, New York

Kapoor M, Kelejian HH, Prucha IR (2007) Panel Data Model with Spatially Correlated Error Components. Journal of Econometrics 140(1): 97–130

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304407606002259

Kozak M (1999) Destination Competitiveness Measurement: Analysis of Effective Factors and Indicators. European Regional Science Association Conference Papers, Dublin

http://www-sre.wu-wien.ac.at/ersa/ersaconfs/ersa99/Papers/a289.pdf

Kozak M, Martin D (2012) Tourism life cycle and sustainability analysis: Profit-focused strategies for mature destinations. Tourism Management 33: 188-194

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261517711000653

Lu J, Nepal SK (2009) Sustainable tourism research: an analysis of papers published in the Journal of Sustainable Tourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 17(1): 5-16

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09669580802582480

Ma T, Hong T, Zhang H (2015) Tourism spatial spillover effects and urban economic growth. Journal of Business Research 68(1): 74-80

http://isiarticles.com/bundles/Article/pre/pdf/45210.pdf

Majewska J (2015) Inter-regional agglomeration effects in tourism in Poland. Tourism Geographies 17(3): 408-436

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14616688.2014.997279

Marrocu E, Paci R (2013) Different tourists to different destinations - Evidence from spatial interaction models. Tourism Management 39, 71-83

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261517712001896

Martín J, Mendoza C, Román C (2015) A DEA Travel–Tourism Competitiveness Index. Social Indicators Research, 1-21

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11205-015-1211-3

Mazanek J, Wober K, Zins A (2007) Tourism Destination Competitiveness: From Definition to Explanation?. Journal of Travel Research 46: 86-95

http://jtr.sagepub.com/content/46/1/86.full.pdf+html

Milo G, Piras G (2012) splm: Spatial Panel Data Models in R. Journal of Statistical Software 47(1): 1-38

https://www.jstatsoft.org/article/view/v047i01/v47i01.pdf

Navickas V, Malakauskaite A (2009) The Possibilities for the Identification and Evaluation of Tourism Sector Competitiveness Factors. Engineering Economic, 1(61): 37-44

http://eis.ktu.lt/index.php/EE/article/view/11581

O'Brien R (2007) A Caution Regarding Rules of Thumb for Variance Inflation Factors. Quality and Quantity 41(5): 673-690

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11135-006-9018-6

Park J, Jang S (2014) An Extended Gravity Model: Applying Destination Competitiveness. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing 31(7): 799-816

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10548408.2014.889640

Patuelli R, Mussoni M, Candela G (2013) The effects of World Heritage Sites on domestic tourism: a spatial interaction model for Italy. Journal of Geographical Systems 15, 369–402

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10109-013-0184-5

Poon A (1994) The ‘new tourism’ revolution. Tourism Management 15(2): 91-92

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0261517794900019

Porter M (1985) Competitive advantage - creating and sustaining superior performance. The Free Press, New York

Porter M (2003) The economic performance of regions. Regional Studies 37(6/7): 549-578

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/0034340032000108688

Ritchie J, Crouch G (2003) The competitive destination: A sustainable tourism perspective. CABI International, Oxfordshire

Romão J (2015) Culture or Nature: a space-time analysis on the determinants of tourism demand in European regions. Discussion Papers Spatial and Organisational Dynamics 14

http://www.cieo.pt/discussionpapers/discussionpapers14.pdf#page=35

Sharpley R. (2009) Tourism Development and the Environment: Beyond Sustainability?. Earthscan, London.

Song H, Dwyer L, Cao Z (2012) Tourism Economics Research: A Review and Assessment. Annals of Tourism Research 39(3): 1653-1682

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160738312000795

Torres-Delgado A, Saarinen J (2014) Using indicators to assess sustainable tourism development: a review. Tourism Geographies 16(1): 31-47

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14616688.2013.867530

Tsai H, Song H, Wong K (2009) Tourism and Hotel Competitiveness. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing 26(5): 522-546

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10548400903163079

UNESCO (2000) Sustainable Tourism and the Environment. UNESCO, Paris

UNESCO (2005) World Heritage Centre - Sustainable Tourism Programme. UNESCO, Paris

UNWTO (2007) Practical Guide to Tourism Destination Management. UNWTO, Madrid

Vanhove N (2005) The Economics of Tourism Destinations. Elsevier, Oxford

Wall G, Mathieson A (2006) Tourism: Change, Impacts and Opportunities. Pearson, Essex

Weaver D (2006) Sustainable tourism: Theory and practice. Elsevier, Oxford

Webster C, Ivanov S (2014) Transforming competitiveness into economic benefits: Does tourism stimulate economic growth in more competitive destinations?. Tourism Management 40: 137-140

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0261517713001222

Williams A, Shaw G (2011) Internationalization and Innovation in Tourism. Annals of Tourism Research 38(1): 27–51

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S016073831000126X

Williams P, Ponsford I (2009) Confronting tourism’s environmental paradox: Transitioning for sustainable tourism. Futures 41: 396–404

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0016328708002164

World Economic Forum (2008) The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2008. World Economic Forum, Geneva

World Commission on Environment and Development. (1987) Our Common Future. Oxford University Press, New York

World Tourism Organization (1993) Sustainable Tourism Development: Guide for Local Planners. WTO, Madrid

Yang Y, Fik T (2014) Spatial effects in regional tourism growth. Annals of Tourism Research 46, 144–162

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160738314000346

Hallstadt
Published
2017-07-24
How to Cite
Romão, J., Guerreiro, J. and Rodrigues, P. M. M. (2017) “Territory and Sustainable Tourism Development: a Space-Time Analysis on European Regions”, REGION, 4(3), pp. 1-17. doi: 10.18335/region.v4i3.142.
Section
Articles
Share